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Davis NVF: The ultimate treadle for quilting

January 6, 2015 - 11:36 am

Yesterday I mentioned the Treadle Quilters on Facebook, and the quilt-along that Damascus Annie is putting together. I’m committing to going through this block-of-the-month project to improve my piecing skills, which are… not what they might be.

A quarter-inch seam sounds like an easy enough thing to manage, but it seems to be entirely beyond me to maintain it with any consistency. I can cut well enough and press diligently, but my attention wanders while sewing and takes my seam line with it. Not enough to affect the fit of clothing or soft goods, but a thread or two off on every stitching line across the width of a quilt is far too much.

I decided as part of this project that I will get all my people-powered machines running. I have five treadle machines and six machines destined to be hand cranks. The hand cranks are all Singer 99’s, and will be my beginner and quilt piecing machines when I open the shop. Three of the treadles are running, one is completely disassembled awaiting restoration, and the last one is a Davis New Vertical Feed (NVF).

Here’s a picture from the craigslist posting in which I found my Davis:

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The Davis NVF is a machine spoken about in hushed tones and sought after by treadle enthusiasts and quilters. It’s the only consumer machine ever sold with a “needle feed system” instead of the friction feed that all other domestic sewing machines use to move fabric under the needle stitch by stitch. The difference between a needle feed and a friction feed is that the multiple layers of fabric can’t slide past each other while the fabric is being advanced, because the needle is pinning them together during the movement. Here’s a nifty video:

A standard machine, by contrast, relies on friction to hold the two layers of material together. The “feed dogs” in the bed of the machine pinch against the presser foot and move the fabric along while the needle is up in the air between stitches. This is notoriously unreliable when layers are slippery or stretchy, so much so that an attachment called a “walking foot” has been created that grips the top layer of fabric just like the teeth on the feed dogs grip the bottom. It helps some, but is still an imperfect tool. Particularly for quilters, who are moving three layers of material instead of two when they quilt, and it’s the middle layer of fluffy batting that tends to be the most slippery.

Needle feed machines are relatively common in industrial settings, where they are used to sew leather, silks, and various other fabrics, but somehow the Davis is the only domestic machine ever sold with this mechanism. Davis sold machines for about 50 years, and that link is a fascinating history of the company. (Spoiler: Davis became the Huffy Bicycle Company after they lost a bicycle contract with Harley Davidson)

The New Vertical Feed model was the last needle feed machine produced by Davis, and has two important improvements on it’s predecessors. First, it has a reverse button for back-tacking. Second and more importantly, Davis switched to the needles and bobbin shuttles that Singer had made standard. Older Davis models are much harder (and more expensive!) to operate, because antique shuttles and specialty needles must be searched out. For the NVF I don’t have to look any further than the closest fabric store to find what I need.

I am not ready to do a full restoration on this machine yet. It’s filthy, and the original finish has not aged well, but the decals are nearly perfect. I want to get more practice restoring sewing machine finishes before I attempt to do justice to this one. But it doesn’t have to be perfect to be functional!

First up I pulled the head out of the cabinet and oiled all the parts well:

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I used a bamboo skewer to clear the solidified grime off the bobbin winder and other moving parts sufficiently to allow everything to move freely. Then I put it back in the cabinet and gave it a spin, and right off the bat it made stitches!!

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I stitched on rags until I had worked out all the extra oil from lubricating the machine, and tweaked the tensions a bit, until I had clean and even lines of stitching:

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Then I cut the strips for our first block of the month, which is Rail Fence:

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Attached a seam guide to the Davis (the original attachment for this purpose has been lost) and sewed up the strips:

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Pressed and cut the assembled strips into the required 6.5” squares:

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Decided on block layouts for the three complete blocks I could make from the strips I cut:

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And sewed and pressed them:

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At some point in this process I noticed that the magnetic seam guide I had purchased a while back was a waste of money. The magnet is deeper than the guide, and the guide is badly formed, such that there’s a gap underneath it when it’s used. This allows the fabric to slide under the edge of the gauge instead of riding against it, which rather defeats the purpose. My seams wandered, but were close enough that I could trim the blocks up and end up with more or less the desired size, albeit without perfect point alignment at the centers of two of the blocks. Given the layout, though, that won’t be noticeable.

I attempted to repair it this morning, and gave up after about an hour’s effort. So this gizmo:

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is garbage. Don’t buy it.

I will continue on my quest for a perfect quilter’s seam.

Baby Blue FMQ treadle machine

November 25, 2014 - 3:48 pm

Today’s job was to get the Japanese 15 clone set up on the treadle and sewing. I managed to complete the first part of that, as well as a cleaning and oiling, this morning. Hoping to try to actually sew something later today.

Here’s the set-up:

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Rafiki and Figment are supervising: 

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This is my sewing machine toolbox, to give you some idea what I carry around to work on these machines:

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Maybe I’ll go through the contents in another post one of these days. Oil, rags, grease, tools, and a few common parts. The shop towels double as fabric for test sewing, by the way. There is one thing leaving the toolbox as of today:

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That bottle was most of the way full when I put it away. The tip telescopes out to make it easier to get oil exactly where I want it, but it also leaked terribly. Fortunately it was isolated in a compartment in the toolbox tray, so the mess was contained and easily cleaned up. I used the resulting oily rag to give the machine a good wipe down.

The biggest challenge to this install was the treadle belt. 

Traditional treadle belts were made of leather cord, and so that’s what many folks use today. They are frequently stapled, but can be sewn. I removed the old belt by prying open the staple:

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And then installing the shorter spare I had on hand and closing its staple: 

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I love these pliers for working on belt staples: 

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I quickly discovered I had mis-measured, and the new belt was too short. To get around this I discarded the staple and elected to sew up a belt with two splices. Fortunately I am the thrifty sort who keeps odds and ends rather than pitching them, so I had the remainder from shortening a couple belts on hand.

Sewing a treadle belt is easy, and I honestly prefer this method of finishing them. It only takes waxed nylon thread and a blunt tipped mending needle, as for sewing up a sweater. There is no staple to scrape and rattle, and the splice is far less likely to open up. The key to an easy job is to open the hole well enough that the needle goes through easily. 

So I made the first splice:

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Measured the belt to see how long it needed to be: 

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Note that I measured twice, and cut between the two measurements. Belts are stretchy. It should end up just tight enough not to slip, but not so tight that it puts strain on the parts.

I clipped it off, poked another hole, and sewed another splice:

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I tie surgeon’s knots and bury them between the ends of the belt, then clip the ends of the nylon thread a little bit longer than the belt is wide: 

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And so I have a double spliced belt!

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The machine was very much in need of a clean and lube. I thought I had done that when it came in; this machine was the last acquisition before we started packing to move to the new house. Short story is, it was NOT cleaned. I pulled out clumps of felted lint and thread that had wrapped itself around every part that turned. It cleaned up nicely, though! 

One tip for taking these machines apart: always put fasteners back in their holes. Notice that I’ve screwed the screws back in that hold the feed dog cover plate:

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Those screws are serving no practical purpose and might even be a bit in the way when I’m cleaning, but what they’re not doing is getting lost, or disappearing into a pile of fasteners that all look the same but are slightly different. I’ve had to try to sort out those piles more than twice. I don’t recommend the game. It leads to frustration and bad words.

This machine has a gold decal marking as a JA-6: 

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And a cast-in brand of J-C2:

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Here’s a full view of the underside: 

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It’s badged “Dressmaker Deluxe 2000,” and ready for testing!

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The Free Sewing Machine Company

January 15, 2014 - 12:00 pm

Another treadle machine followed me home. I couldn’t help it. She’s beautiful, and her cabinet is probably the nicest piece of furniture in the house. Beauty pics later; this is sort of a drive-by post. For now I’ll post the craigslist photos:

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I have a lot of work ahead of me to fully restore this machine. She’s in by far the worst shape of the machines I’ve acquired so far, but oh, my. This machine is a whole nuther level of engineering up from the Singers. Wow. 

Everything is lubed up and moving freely now, so I can start evaluating. The only thing stuck is the throat plate screw, which I worked around for lubrication purposes. I doused it liberally with WD-40 and I’m hoping that will remind it what the purpose of a screw is. 

With just a little oil on its ball bearings the treadle spins 50 times from one kick before reversing directions, and then will sit there oscillating indefinitely. 50. My other irons go about 12, and I thought that was nice. I’m used to the momentum of spinning wheels, not these monster iron things. 

Which, by the way, I have the bruise to prove. I was working on the drive band and pinched my thumb in the works. OW.

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On the machine side of the engineering, I’m impressed by how finely pitched all the adjustment screws are. No need to turn the knobs 1/10th of a turn on this beauty. A full turn will barely make a perceptible difference in tension settings. The machine will also go a sizable number of stitches with one spin of the hand wheel. I didn’t count, but at least a dozen. Will C. Free appears to have been a big fan of ball bearings. All the major junction points have bearings that let the machine just glide. Quietly. Check out this YouTube video:

It’s even better in person. 

There is a lot of corrosion and some pitting on the formerly shiny parts, and I haven’t gotten all the dead spiders out of the cabinet yet, but not too much rust all things considered. All of the functional parts are brightening up now that they’re moving.

And she makes stitches:

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Pretty stitches, once I frobbed the shuttle a bit so the top thread could glide past without catching things got much nicer. Things are a bit lumpy in the background, but that last line of stitching is perfect. Flawless. Just what I would expect from this level of engineering.

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I also noticed the stitch quality seemed to improve when I pushed the bobbin winder into play enough to tighten the drive band up, which doesn’t make a great deal of sense to me. And two footed treadling was definitely better; I can’t keep my treading smooth when I one-foot this beast.

I’m naming her Charlotte after my granny, who got me started with textiles. She had me knitting and sewing at 4, though even she couldn’t teach me to crochet. 🙂 Granny always appreciated the finest things in life. She lived modestly, but well. I believe she would have liked this machine.

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